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When the toys are having trouble getting the truck to move, they tell Mr. Potato Head to "use the wand of power" the truck's gear lever , which they mistook for the control lever of the giant claw game.
They nearly fall out of the window, due to the sharp turns from Buzz trying to catch Al in his car. Potato Head saves them. The Little Green Men are thankful and hand him his ear.
Throughout the rest of the movie they frequently say "You have saved our lives, we are eternally grateful," much to Potato Head's dismay.
The Little Green Men join the quest to save Woody and mistake the entrance to the baggage area for the "Mystic Portal". They chase after the luggage with Rex, Hamm, and Potato Head, only to find cameras.
Back home, the trio, along with Bullseye and Jessie, end up becoming some of Andy's toys. They say their gratefulness to Mr.
Potato Head, and Mrs. Potato Head is so happy that he saved their lives, so she suggests that they adopt them, with the Little Green Men calling Potato Head "daddy".
They reappear in Toy Story 3 as the "henchmen" under One-Eyed Bart and One-Eyed Betty, and serve as the getaway drivers during the western opening sequence and drive Barbie's corvette.
The car is destroyed by Buzz's laser and they are transported to Dr. In the present time, the same trio continues to express their gratefulness to Mr.
When Andy's mother mistakes the trash bag containing them as trash, she puts the toys on the curb, but they manage to escape the garbage bag.
They are donated to Sunnyside along with the rest of Andy's toys. The Little Green Men get sat on and bounced on during a rough playtime with the toddlers.
The toys plan to escape Sunnyside. They almost get caught by Big Baby because one of the Little Green Men falls off Bullseye and squeaks, but manage to hide inside a pail.
Later when Andy's toys escape, one of the Little Green Men's feet gets stuck in the lid of the bin at the bottom of the chute, possibly after being pulled by Lotso, who had been thrown in the bin by Big Baby.
Woody goes in to help, but after he helps the Little Green Man, Lotso grabs Woody's feet and pulls him into the bin just as the refuse truck arrives.
The toys are collected by the truck and subsequently sent to landfill. The Little Green Men are separated from the others by a bulldozer when they wander off, having spotted a crane.
Potato Head yell and try to warn them, but they are presumed to be dead after being crushed by the bulldozer. In the end, however, they are revealed to have avoided the conveyor belt and later rescue everyone from an incinerator with a giant claw crane for which the Potato Heads finally acknowledges them as his children, reciting their repetitive line, "You have saved our lives and we are eternally grateful.
During the end credits she is a cinema usherette and is seen giving out instructions to the audience. After a while she asks if everyone has gone and promptly stops smiling and complains that it hurts her face.
She then leaves for her break. In Sunnyside, she falls in love with Ken, but after Lotso's minions reset Buzz's personality, and reveal that they want to sacrifice Andy's old toys in order to protect themselves, she ingratiates herself with Ken in order to obtain the Buzz Lightyear manual that lets her friends reset Buzz to his original form.
When she stands up to Lotso by saying that being treated fairly is better than living under his rule, Ken switches his allegiance to her and her friends.
In the end credits of the film, they get back together and change Sunnyside, becoming its co-leaders, after Lotso is defeated. Barbie appears with Ken in Hawaiian Vacation.
They sneak out of the daycare and stowaway in Bonnie's backpack to go to Hawaii but Ken is disappointed to find out that Bonnie didn't take her backpack on her family vacation.
The gang creates their own Hawaiian paradise to cheer Ken and Barbie up. They share their first kiss outside and then get trapped in the snow. Sarge also known as Army Sarge and Sergeant is the gung-ho commander of an army of plastic toy soldiers from Bucket O Soldiers and loosely based on his voice actor's role as Gunnery Sergeant Hartman in the film Full Metal Jacket.
They are highly disciplined with a "Leave no man behind" policy and are masters of reconnaissance. Woody describes them as "professionals.
Davis accidentally steps on one of them. They announced the first few presents to the other toys in Andy's room through the monitors, but didn't get to tell them that Andy got a Buzz Lightyear action figure after Rex accidentally breaks the monitor.
However, they were able to warn them that Andy and his friends are coming upstairs upon Woody fixing the monitor. Sarge and his soldiers thought Woody was a murderer when he knocked Buzz off the window, so they "frag" him and each one of them attack Woody, along with the other toys.
In the moving van, the soldiers attack Woody when he pushed RC off the van, making Sarge and the toys think he's murdering him now. However, Sarge sees that Woody knocking Buzz out the window was an accident, attempts to helps him on the van with the other toys, and is proud to work under Woody once again as shown at the end of the film when they hide in a Christmas tree and Christmas lights with the baby monitor to report to the toys what Andy and Molly are getting for Christmas.
In Toy Story 2, the role of Sarge is very minor. He first orders the soldiers to keep looking for Woody's hat in the toy box.
When Buster was about to come to the room, Sarge and his army held back the door with help from Rocky to prevent Buster's entry, but Buster bursts open the door, causing the soldiers to go flying everywhere.
When Woody alerts the toys about the yard sale occurring outside the house, he signals Sarge for an "emergency roll call" and Sarge orders the toys to line up in a single-file line.
Woody orders Sarge and his men to retrieve Andy's cellphone. That plan, however, fails, and knowing that Andy is going to get out the garbage bag, Sarge and his last two men leave Andy's room to find a better life.
Buzz believes they are going AWOL , but Sarge claims that their mission is complete, and that when trash bags come out, the Army men are always the first to be thrown away it's likely that the rest of the soldiers had either left prior to that day, or were sold in a yard sale.
They appear again at the end of the film where they land in Sunnyside, and possibly recognizing Barbie, begin a happy new life under Barbie and Ken's leadership.
Bo Peep is a porcelain figurine attached to Molly's bedside lamp inspired by the heroine of the famed nursery rhyme; a beautiful, sweet-natured shepherdess accompanied by a single figure merged to resemble three sheep, who serves as Woody's romantic interest of the films.
In spite of her status as one of Molly's toys, like Mrs. Potato Head she may fall under the category of Andy's toy. In Andy's games of imaginative play she is used as the damsel-in-distress of the stories, and she is depicted as gentle, ladylike, and kindhearted.
In the first film, after Woody's exclusion from the group when Buzz Lightyear started to attract more attention, she remained loyal to him rather than taunting him because of Buzz's rise in popularity.
After Woody accidentally knocked Buzz out the window, she was one of the only toys who did not antagonize him. She continued to show her attraction to Woody in Toy Story 2 , flirting with him while playing a minor role.
However, she did not return in Toy Story 3 , except in flashback footage, as, over the years, she had apparently been sold, much to Woody's distress, like a few of the other characters.
The particular reason for her disappearance was never disclosed officially, though Woody shows grief over her loss.
RC is Andy's remote controlled buggy. He has a green body with blue splash decals on the front. RC "speaks" with revving sounds, although Mr. Potato Head and the other toys can understand him regardless.
RC is a playable character in Toy Story Racer. When Woody becomes really jealous, he calls out to Buzz that there is a toy a magic 8-ball trapped underneath the desk.
Woody sneaks over to RC, starts him up, and tried to hit Buzz but misses. However, RC hits a board instead, causing thumbtacks on the board to fall and a globe to roll.
Buzz falls out a window when the globe hits a red lamp and swings around and hits him. RC says to the other toys that Woody accidentally knocked Buzz out the window.
RC then turns on Woody and thinks that he murdered Buzz. When Woody went to the moving van, he got RC out of the box and pushes him into the street and controlled him to rescue Buzz during the moving scene at the end of the film.
After the toys mistakenly think that Woody is trying to get rid of RC, they toss Woody out of the moving truck into the street. RC finds Buzz hiding under the car in the streets and is thrilled to see him alive and well.
Buzz controlled RC to catch Woody. Woody switched the remote to turbo mode to catch up with the truck, but RC's batteries deplete, causing him to slow down and finally stop.
Nevertheless, Woody manages to toss RC back into the truck knocking Mr. Potato Head apart in the process before he and Buzz go skyrocketing into the air.
In Toy Story 2 , RC has a very minor role. He was used when Andy played with his toys. With Buzz riding him, he crashed into Evil Dr.
Porkchop and knocked him down. He is not seen again until the end of the film, when he watched Wheezy sing "You've Got a Friend in Me".
RC does not directly appear in Toy Story 3 , having seemingly been sold in a yard sale alongside a number of other toys. Instead, he only appears via archival footage.
Wheezy also known as Wheezy the Penguin is a squeeze toy penguin with a red bow tie. In Toy Story 2, Wheezy is introduced when Woody finds him on the shelf.
Wheezy was one of Andy's favourite toys until one day his squeaker broke. Andy's mom then put him on the shelf, intending to fix his broken squeaker later, but she forgot about him.
He is about to be sold at the yard sale, and in saving him, Woody ends up falling so that he is stuck at the yard sale himself and subsequently stolen by Al.
At the end of the film, he gets a new "squeaker" and sings "You've Got a Friend in Me," the ending theme of the movie.
During the outtakes, he describes himself as "not a good catcher" as he fails to catch Mike's microphone thus hurting himself several times.
Wheezy does not directly appear in Toy Story 3 as he was sold in a yard sale after Toy Story 2 , as mentioned by Woody, but he does appear in footage of Andy as a boy Toy Story 3.
Etch can draw quickly and accurately. Such sketches include guns, portraits of Buzz, Woody and Al, and even semi-complicated maps. This is his form of communication as he is unable to talk.
In Toy Story , Woody compliments Etch's art by saying that he has the fastest knobs in the west. He was also seen in the background many times, such as during the staff meetings and during Andy's birthday and Christmas gift opening scenes.
He became fascinated with Buzz during the middle of the film when he sketched a portrait of him. Angered by this, Woody erased it.
He apparently, like most of the toys, temporarily believes Woody deliberately knocked Buzz out of the window; he helps Mr. Potato Head threaten Woody by sketching a hangman's noose.
Potato Head and the gang to identify Woody's kidnapper, Al. Later on, when the toys were surfing channels to find the location on how to find Al's Toy Barn, Etch is seen in the back as he was ready to draw a map for Buzz.
Near the end of the movie, sometime before Andy comes back from cowboy camp, Etch, as well as the rest of the toys then including Jessie, Bullseye, and the Aliens , were aligned to welcome Andy home, with a "Welcome Home, Andy" sign written on Etch.
Etch was sold in yard sale years after the second Toy Story , was mentioned by Woody, and only appeared in the archive footage of Andy as a kid in Toy Story 3.
He frequently holds or has held seminars on a variety of topics such as "plastic corrosion awareness" and " what to do if you or part of you is swallowed.
When Andy's friends came to his birthday party, the toys panicked in thinking that they might be replaced with new toys and Mr. Spell, along with basically everyone else aside from Woody, ran to the window in panic to see the size of the presents.
Then later, when Andy's friends were running up to his room, Woody told everyone to go back to their places and the toys began to scatter and Mr.
Spell can be seen in the overhead shot running in fright and then again behind Mr. Later, after Woody is stolen from a yard sale, Buzz uses Mr. Spell to help Andy's toys figure out who has stolen Woody.
Spell does not appear in Toy Story 3. Rocky Gibraltar , more simply referred to as Rocky , is a figure of a heavyweight wrestler.
He is the second strongest toy in Andy's room, after Buzz Lightyear. Potato Head, and Rex. Rocky lifts the heaviest weights out of all of Andy's toys.
In the Activity Center computer game, he can be seen on the top shelf playing cards with Hamm and speaks in third-person , saying, "Rocky needs to work on brain muscles.
Potato Head's orders, spins Woody in the air and later tosses him off the truck personally. But when the toys realize that Woody's only use of RC is to help Buzz onto the truck, Bo Peep calls Rocky who then redeems himself by lowering the truck's ramp for them.
In Toy Story 2, Rocky, along with Sarge's toy soldiers, tries to hold back the door to prevent Buster from entering, but Buster rams the door open, causing Rocky and the soldiers to go flying.
Rocky is also seen holding Wheezy as Wheezy begs Buzz to rescue Woody and when waving Buzz and his rescue squad goodbye as they leave on their mission.
Rocky's name and a logo on his championship belt are references to the Rock of Gibraltar. Rocky is a playable character in the Toy Story Racer video game.
Lenny often known as Lenny the Binoculars is a pair of wind up binoculars. He is used as binoculars by the other toys in various situations and is talkative when he warns the toys what he sees on his watch and has a major role in Toy Story.
Lenny appears in Toy Story 3 through archive footage from when Andy was young. Lenny was sold, possibly at a yard sale, before the events of Toy Story 3.
Lenny is a playable character in the Toy Story Racer video game. Snake is a green and purple jointed rattlesnake toy who is best friends with Robot, as they are often seen together.
He has a major role in the first film. He is unable to talk, but he communicates through hissing.
When Buzz was accidentally knocked out the window, he sided with Mr. Potato Head against Woody. Later, at the end of the film, he and the other toys try to help Woody, Buzz and RC get back onto the moving van when they realized their mistake.
In Toy Story 2 , Snake has a very minor role in the film. He is first seen when Hamm, Mr. Potato Head, Etch and everyone else try to figure out who stole Woody.
He isn't seen again until the end of the movie where he watches Wheezy sing "You Got a Friend in Me". Shark and the other toys, but he made two cameos in the home videos at the start of the film.
Robot is an educational robot toy from Playskool. Unlike his best pal Snake, he speaks English. He is shown to be good with building blocks.
In Toy Story , he stands on his head for Buzz to run on his treads like a treadmill and also repairs his ship. He is also one of the toys who turn against Woody when Buzz was accidentally knocked out the window.
He and Rocky later throw Woody out of the moving truck, but then try to help Woody, Buzz and RC when the toys realized that they made a big mistake.
In Toy Story 2 , he assists Buzz in the yard sale role call and isn't seen again until later at the end of the film where he watches Wheezy sing "You Got a Friend in Me".
Robot does not appear in Toy Story 3. He was sold at yard sale along with Snake and the others, but he made a cameo in the home videos at the beginning of the film.
Shark is a blue rubber, squeaky shark toy who appears in Toy Story and Toy Story 2. The back of him is never seen because he spends most of his time in the toy box.
In the first film, he steals Woody's hat and imitates him before he takes his hat back. In Toy Story 2 , he is used as one of the death traps during Andy's playtime.
At the end of the film, he repairs Wheezy by finding him an extra squeaker. He was sold at a yard sale before Toy Story 3.
Mike , also known as Microphone , is a toy tape recorder who helps Woody amplify his voice during staff meetings with his attached microphone.
In Toy Story 2 , Wheezy uses him as a karaoke machine. He was sold at a yard sale prior to the events of Toy Story 3. See 'n Say is an educational animal toy that appeared in Toy Story.
Whenever he feels strong emotions, his central arrow wheel spins rapidly. This is his form of communication as he is unable to talk and just like Etch, Mr.
Spell and Mike, he gets around by waddling on his stand. See 'n say did not appear in Toy Story 2. Roly Poly Clown is a rocking, chiming clown toy with a painted jacket and hands and a party hat seen in Toy Story and Toy Story 2.
While not being able to talk, he mainly communicates through facial expressions. He also must rely on rolling around to get places since he doesn't have feet.
When not out, Roly Poly Clown resides in the toy box. Mike, Rocky Gibraltar, Mr. They are in the style of the Russian doll with a picture of five animals: Spell, See 'n Say, Lenny, Mr.
Troll is a Troll doll with pink hair and a blue bathing suit that appear in Toy Story and Toy Story 2. In the first film it became fascinated with Buzz and is seen lifting weights Tinker dolls with Rocky, Rex, Mr.
Potato Head, Robot and Snake. In Toy Story 2 it is seen alongside with Bo Peep to help for searching Woody's hat before Andy is about to go to the summer camp.
It is piloted by the Fireman Toddle Tots. The Hockey Puck appeared very briefly in Toy Story , right before the toys had a staff meeting.
He is not seen at the staff meeting, or anywhere else in the movie. These characters are the toys owned by Bonnie in Toy Story 3 and the short films.
Chuckles is a brokenhearted toy clown who was once owned by Daisy along with Lotso and Big Baby , and is later owned by Bonnie. He is first seen mournfully looking out the kitchen window in Bonnie's house, where he tells Woody about Lotso's past, stating that Lotso used to be a good friend.
Chuckles explains that he, Lotso, and Big Baby were accidentally left behind on a trip with Daisy's family, and when they finally made it back to Daisy's house, both him and Lotso discovered that Lotso had been replaced, which caused Lotso to snap.
Chuckles objected when Lotso claimed all three had been replaced, but Lotso silenced him, and lied to Big Baby, saying that Daisy did not love him anymore.
After the three found their way to Sunnyside and Lotso took over, running it like a prison, Chuckles was damaged and Bonnie found him and took him home.
He still feels sorry for what happened to Lotso, but knows that what Lotso is doing at Sunnyside is wrong.
He gives Woody a pendant which formerly belonged to Big Baby that says My heart belongs to Daisy, which later leads Big Baby to discover Lotso's deception and rebel against him.
In one of the end credits sequences, Chuckles sees a crayon-drawn picture of him, and Dolly says that "Bonnie really got your smile," making Chuckles happy again, for the first time in many years.
Chuckles returns in the short film Hawaiian Vacation and he sings a Hawaiian love song while playing a ukulele when Barbie and Ken get their recreated Hawaiian adventures.
He also appears in Small Fry. Dolly is a soft dress-up rag doll with purple hair, googly-eyes , an orange dress with buttons sewn on, and gently blushing cheeks.
In the Toy Story 3 video game , she is seen as a witch. It's indicated that she is the leader of Bonnie's toys.
Pricklepants is a stuffed hedgehog. He wears lederhosen and a Tyrolean hat , and views himself as a thespian. Pricklepants was made in Germany although he speaks with an English accent and actor's diction and is from the Waldfreunde Forest Friends collection of premium imported plush toys.
Throughout Toy Story 3 , he expresses great interest in theater arts and in the same respect, takes the art of role playing as a child's toy very seriously.
Buttercup refers to him sarcastically as "Baron von Shush" due to his habit of "shushing" the other toys when they break character. During the credits, he plays Romeo , with one of the aliens playing Juliet.
Trixie is a blue toy Triceratops. She chats online with "a dinosaur toy down the street" who goes by the name "Velocistar Buttercup is a white unicorn with a yellow mane and a pink nose.
Despite his appearance, he has a very gruff voice and sarcastic personality. He is the first to introduce himself to Woody when Bonnie brings him home.
He later appears at the end of the movie, now very close friends with Hamm. Peas-in-a-Pod are three soft, plush green balls in a green zip-up case that looks like a pea pod.
They have the personalities of small children, and their names are Peaty, Peatrice, and Peanelope. The Peas-in-a-Pod reappear in the short film Hawaiian Vacation.
They also appear in Small Fry. A running gag in the film is Angel Kitty giving a moral about Christmas much to other toys' mostly Trixie dismay and joy.
She is mostly seen with a trumpet giving morals. Totoro , the title character from My Neighbor Totoro , who is also the mascot of Studio Ghibli , appears as one of Bonnie's toys.
He is a big plush toy and does not speak at all during the film, nor is he spoken to by anyone by his name. He does however display his famous grin during the credit scenes, and at the end of the film, he is seen juggling the alien triplets, while Mr.
According to the tie-in book, The Art of Toy Story 3 , [ citation needed ] Totoro's appearance in the film was intended as a tribute to Hayao Miyazaki , who is a close friend of Pixar executive John Lasseter.
Combat Carl is a G. Joe -type toy character. He first appears as a toy of Sid's that Sid blows up with an M explosive in his first scene in Toy Story.
Pieces of him are later seen coming to life during Woody's plan to frighten Sid into altering his behavior near the end of the film.
A different character with the same name appears in Toy Story of Terror! The Mutant Toys are mutilated toys who live their unhappy lives in the darkest corners of Sid's room.
They are assembled by Sid from mixed pieces of several toys that belong to him and Hannah hence the baby doll's parts. They do not speak, though it is revealed they know Morse Code.
Woody and Buzz initially think that they are cannibals who are going to eat them, before they learn that the toys are actually friendly and compassionate.
They close in on Sid as Woody tells Sid how much they hate being mutilated, and they all rejoice in victory after Woody frightens Sid away with his own voice.
Al's Toy Barn appears in Toy Story 3: Stinky Pete, also known as Prospector, is a prospector doll and the primary antagonist of Toy Story 2.
He is a toy modeled after a character on the fictional television show, Woody's Roundup , where the characters consists of Sheriff Woody , Jessie , Stinky Pete, and Bullseye.
The Prospector doll seen in the film had never been opened and was still "Mint in the Box" making him sought after by thousands of collectors.
In contrast to the character on the show, Stinky Pete is quite intelligent, manipulative, and well-spoken and, when he first appears, he seems to be a grandfather figure and mentor.
However, he becomes embittered because he has never been sold or played with until Al McWhiggin eventually found him. Stinky Pete makes no secret of his hatred for space toys like Buzz Lightyear, whom he blames for causing the show to be canceled after the launch of Sputnik , causing children all over America to lose their interest in cowboy toys, shifting their interest to space adventures instead.
Years after being purchased, Stinky Pete would spend years in storage while Al bought more toys and advertisements from Woody's Roundup.
Woody reveals that he has an owner named Andy Davis, which infuriates Jessie and leads the Prospector to become determined to make sure Woody doesn't go back to Andy at any cost, despite the fact that he is now aware that Al actually has stolen Woody because he still belongs to Andy.
When Al accidentally rips off Woody's arm, Stinky Pete secretly leaves his box and he sabotages Woody's attempt to recover his arm and return to Andy by turning on the TV.
He then frames Jessie for this by putting the TV remote near her before returning to his box and pretending that he "doesn't know" how the TV turned on after Woody falls for his trick.
He later convinces Woody to wait until his arm is supposed to be fixed in the morning, which is done after Al calls in a cleaner.
After Woody's arm is fixed, Stinky Pete convinces Woody after a story that Jessie tells him about her old owner, that Andy won't play with him anymore by the time he goes to college, but in Japan, Woody will be treasured forever.
Woody agrees to stay with them instead of going back to Andy, much to Stinky Pete, Jessie and Bullseye's delight.
However, Woody's friends arrive during a celebration of going to Japan and they demand that Woody returns to Andy, but Woody angrily refuses, resulting in the toys sadly saying goodbye and leaving without him.
However, before leaving, Buzz says an upset goodbye to Woody by saying that he'll be staying behind glass forever and not being loved again if he chooses to go to Japan, leaving Woody to think over his choice.
However, Woody has a change of heart and tells Buzz that he is coming with them, and invites his friends to come with him to Andy's house.
However, Stinky Pete is very angry with Woody for attempting to leave with Jessie and Bullseye back to Andy's house, and once again he sabotages Woody's attempt to escape by tightening the bolt to the vent as well as revealing to the others that he can actually get out of his box whenever he wants and uses his pick axe to turn off the TV, causing Woody to realize that it was the Prospector who foiled his escape the previous night by turning on the TV and framing Jessie for it.
He sees unpopular toys like him and the Roundup Gang doomed to either always ending up in storage or "spending a lifetime on a dime store shelf watching every other toy be sold," similar to his fate before Al found him, and does not want Woody, Jessie, and Bullseye to suffer the same fate.
He also sees children as destroyers of toys whose ultimate fate will be "spending eternity rotting in some landfill ".
This makes him all the more determined to go to the Tokyo museum and become an exhibit for the rest of his life, unlike Woody and Jessie.
When an angry Stinky Pete punches Buzz off the ramp at the airport to prevent Woody's rescue, Woody confronts and fights Stinky Pete for harming his friend.
Stinky Pete manages to overpower him, ripping his right arm in the process. He then attempts to finish Woody off after he refuses to get back in the case as told, assuring him that he will be fixed again in Japan while saying that going home will eventually end up with him being in pieces.
The other toys blind and stun Stinky Pete with flash cameras that the toys found after they confused and mistook another green luggage case for Woody's.
Buzz, surviving the fall, captures Stinky Pete and Woody instructs Buzz and the other toys to dump Stinky Pete into a Barbie doll backpack that belongs to a little girl named Amy voiced by Debi Derryberry , who enjoys decorating her dolls' faces with tattoos, as punishment and revenge for his betrayal, knowing it will make him learn the true meaning of playtime.
Upon learning of Amy's occupations of decorating her dolls, Stinky Pete starts to weep as he is taken to his new owner's home. Ironically, this fate is a rectification of a past injustice done to Stinky Pete.
Since much of his anger came from never being sold, opened or played with; now he is finally being owned by a child after waiting 50 years.
However, after the film's release, the film's website featured interviews with the characters. In Stinky Pete's interview, he has reformed and said that he has become accustomed to Amy decorating him, as well of being fond of Amy herself.
Despite his appearance, Stinky Pete does not appear in the third film, because he was no longer mentioned, though he seems to accurately predict the events of Toy Story 3 as what he had said after his defeat started to come true in the film.
He asks Woody if Andy will take him to college, and later tells the rest of the toys that children destroy toys, which occurs in the Sunnyside Daycare, and that they will be forgotten and end up in a landfill permanently, where the toys are narrowly rescued from the incinerator after an escape attempt and return to Andy's.
The last part of his prediction did not come true. According to his box, Stinky Pete had a total of 9 sayings. In one outtake, Stinky Pete is seen talking to two Barbie dolls in the box, promising them a role in the third film.
In another outtake, Stinky Pete gives Woody a choice to go back to Andy's home or stay, until he suffers a bout of flatulence, which he later implies is the reason for his nickname.
According to the DVD commentary, the Pixar team had deliberated for a while what the proper comeuppance for the Prospector would be before it was decided for him to be placed in a Barbie bag with a face-painted Barbie.
While looking around, Buzz notices that there is a display case labeled "New Utility Belt. Buzz finds himself wondering out loud if he was this deluded, which Utility Belt Buzz mistakes for talking back and threatens to use his laser on him.
Buzz tries to prove to him that he is not an actual Space Ranger by showing him that his laser is actually a light bulb.
This doesn't work however and Utility Belt Buzz jumps out of the way and tells him that he could've killed him. Buzz then decides that he's had enough and tries to leave, only for Utility Belt Buzz to jump out and attack him.
After trapping Buzz in a box similar to the one he came in, he is mistaken for the original Buzz by the gang. When Rex mentions that he knows how to defeat Emperor Zurg—having recently acquired a walkthrough guide for the Buzz Lightyear video game that he's been stuck on, Utility Belt Buzz quickly decides to tag along thinking that the toys are trying to find Zurg.
Heading to the elevator on the way down, they encounter a savage Emperor Zurg toy and Utility Belt Buzz engages him in battle. Rex defeats Zurg by accident, sending him falling off the elevator to his apparent doom by knocking him off-balance with his tail when he turns away as Zurg prepares to shoot Utility Belt Buzz, upsetting him.
He is last seen playing catch with his "father," the Zurg toy, whose attitude towards Utility Belt Buzz has changed after the fall.
Evil Emperor Zurg is a space villain action figure and Buzz Lightyear's archenemy. He has red evil eyes with neon gritting teeth, silver horns on his head, a purple tunic with a black cape on it and his weapon, a gun which has a power control that, as a homage to This is Spinal Tap , goes to In some cases, he does not have a gun but a hand like the one on his other arm.
In the first film, Zurg is a referenced character, and does not appear at all. However, Zurg is first seen in the opening sequence of the second film when Buzz is trying to take his main power away from him Zurg's main power is from an AA battery which is actually revealed to be a hologram.
In the ensuing battle, Zurg vaporizes the top half of Buzz Lightyear's body with his gun, killing him. The sequence then cuts showing that the opening sequence was actually a video game played by Rex.
Zurg is deluded, similar to Andy's Buzz in the first film. In the second film, another copy of Buzz Lightyear , deluded in the same way as Andy's Buzz in the first film, escapes from Al's Toy Barn and battles with Zurg on top of an elevator.
In a reference to the relationship of Luke Skywalker and Darth Vader , the principal hero and villain respectively of the original Star Wars trilogy, Evil Emperor Zurg claims he is in fact the father of Buzz, in an almost word-for-word parody of the scene in The Empire Strikes Back.
As Zurg attempts to finish off Buzz at point-blank range, Rex accidentally hits Zurg with his large tail and sends him falling down the elevator shaft.
The second Buzz looks down the shaft in despair, thinking he has lost his father, while Rex is excited that he has finally managed to defeat Zurg in real life.
Near the end of the film, Zurg is seen to have survived his fall with a bent horn and is now playing catch with the second Buzz.
He supposedly bumped his head so hard that he forgot he was Buzz Lightyear's worst enemy. In the novelisation, however, Zurg is killed by the fall, and Buzz finds him and takes him back to Al's Toy Barn to bury him.
Zurg is mentioned in the third film by Buzz in his bad guy character after Lotso resets him to Demo mode. Zurg appears briefly during a sequence in the end credits, where he is donated to Sunnyside Daycare center and greeted by the resident toys.
Zurg says he is Lightyear's father during a fight in order to shock Lightyear, before regaining the advantage during the fight and then denying the truth of that previous claim.
Whether or not this is actually true, Buzz definitely does not know who his father is. This version of Zurg is also severely lightened up, going from the movie's Darth Vader-esque version to a far less intimidating one; in the TV series Zurg is a flamboyant villain who is just as much a comic relief character as he is a formidable opponent, similar to Skeletor.
This Zurg is known for videotaping Buzz's speeches, maintaining a troll doll collection, and various other comedic habits.
He is shown to have a bit of a British accent throughout the series. It is revealed in the first episode that there is a Nana Zurg, but she is never seen at all although he claims that she's "plenty evil".
Zurg would appear to be a cyborg of some description, also much like Darth Vader. However, it has also been discussed amongst fans that his "cybernetic" traits could also very well be because of advanced technology.
There is yet to be a clear answer. In the TV series, he is the warlord-like ruler of an evil empire and is in command of an army of Hornet robots, as well of a minion workforce consisting of Grubs and Brainpods.
The seat of which is the hellish Planet Z standing for Xrghthung. In various media surrounding the film, his planet is said to be called Xrghthung.
However, because this is unpronounceable in the TV series it is changed to simply "Z. Planet Z evidently possesses vast resources and forces enabling Zurg to be a serious threat to the Galactic Alliance.
Despite being frequently gullible and bungling, Zurg is evidently highly intelligent, able to concoct sound military tactics and Machiavellian evil schemes.
Additionally, he occasionally references stereotypes of typical evil villains and intentionally violates them, showing how aware he is of his similarity to them.
For example, when designing a vast prison on Planet Z, he declines building an execution arena, for it simply "gives the captives more time to get away.
When heroes fall in, they always have enough time to figure a way out. Despite his camp nature, he is just as fearsome and ruthless as his movie counterpart.
Zurg is frequently mentioned to be the most evil villain in the galaxy and appears to possess authority over all other villains.
In fact, he would appear to be a physical manifestation of pure evil. He is particularly proud of this and frequently brags of how "evil" he is.
Zurg appears as a playable character in Toy Story 3: He also has a convertible the ZurgsMobile that matches his personality. His mini counterpart is featured in the short Small Fry.
Zurg appears in the live-action Disney movie, Tomorrowland. She gives the toys a tour in the toy barn and helps them locate Buzz Lightyear they actually find a different, 'limited-edition' Buzz.
After the outtakes of the film, Tour Guide Barbie waves goodbye to the audience until her face hurts from smiling. She then leaves for a break.
Lots-O'-Huggin' Bear Lotso for short is a plush, hot pink teddy bear with a big plum nose, a sweet strawberry scent and a southern accent , who uses a wooden toy mallet as an assistive cane although he is still able to walk even without it.
He is the self-proclaimed leader of the toys at the Sunnyside Daycare Center. He initially acts like a kind-hearted and wise caretaker, but is eventually revealed to be a ruthless prison warden , although his backstory makes him more of a tragic villain.
Woody tries to escape from Sunnyside so he could go back to Andy, but is instead found and taken by a little girl named Bonnie.
Woody learns from Chuckles, one of Bonnie's toys, that Lotso was once owned and loved by a girl named Daisy, having become Daisy's favorite toy when she obtained it for Christmas.
Lotso became friends with Chuckles and Big Baby. One day, Daisy and her family had a picnic in the countryside. When she fell asleep, her parents drove her home, inadvertently leaving the toys behind.
Not wanting to give up, Lotso led his two friends on a long trek back to Daisy's house, only to discover that Daisy had gotten another Lots-O'-Huggin' Bear.
Lotso became embittered and convinced Big Baby that they had been replaced, leaving Daisy's home with Chuckles. Lotso eventually discovered Sunnyside Daycare Center and turned it into an internment camp for toys.
Big Baby took on the role of Lotso's enforcer, while Chuckles was broken, and was discovered by Bonnie and taken home.
Meanwhile, Lotso realizes that Buzz is actually requesting a transfer of himself and the rest of Andy's toys to the Butterfly Room.
Thinking of Buzz to be useful to him, Lotso only approves the transfer to him. When Buzz refuses Lotso's offer to stay in the Caterpillar Room, Lotso reverses Buzz to demo mode and manipulates him into imprisoning Andy's other toys.
When Woody and Andy's toys attempt to flee from the daycare center. Lotso catches the group and once again offers them to stay at Sunnyside when a garbage truck arrives, but the toys refuse and Lotso instructs Stretch to push the toys into the dumpster.
Woody argues with Lotso over his wrongdoings and reveals to him what he knows about Daisy and tosses Daisy's ownership tag to him; Lotso destroys it and says that toys are supposed to be discarded.
His henchmen then turn on him and Big Baby throws him into the dumpster. As the toys attempt to flee, a vengeful Lotso pulls Woody into the dumpster just as the truck collects it to get the other toys to be sent to the dump.
At the landfill, the toys end up on a conveyor belt leading to a shredder. Finding Lotso stuck under a large golf bag, Woody and Buzz rescue him and escape the shredder, only to realize that it leads to an incinerator.
As they are about to reach the incinerator, Lotso sees an emergency stop button, and with Woody and Buzz's help, manages to reach it.
However, instead of pushing the button, he chooses to leave them behind, as he is still evil and selfish on the inside and still believes that all toys are meant to be at the dump.
When Woody and the toys are rescued by the aliens, Hamm and Slinky want to get back at Lotso for leaving them to die, but Woody talks them out of it, claiming that "he's not worth it" and that the dump is the right place for him.
Lotso who is unaware the Andy's toys are still alive is eventually found by a garbage man who recalls that he once had a Lots-O'-Huggin' Bear as a child, and straps Lotso to the grill of a garbage truck with three other toys before driving away.
Lotso was intended to be in the first film originally for a sequel to Tin Toy , but the technology to design the fur to the proper consistency had yet to exist until Monsters, Inc.
However, an early version of Lotso can be seen in the first film when Woody says "Everybody hear me? Up on the shelf, can you hear me?
Test audiences who had sympathized with Lotso for his backstory had wanted him to push the button in the incinerator scene to redeem himself.
However, according to the DVD commentary, director Lee Unkrich explained that Lotso not pushing the button to save the toys was intended for the audience to really care about the characters after three films of getting to know them when it looked like it was the end for them in the incinerator.
The Pixar team took note of the people's concerns and made Lotso to be an outright, selfish liar. Lotso also makes a cameo appearance in Pixar's movie Up in a little girl's room in the city where Mr.
Fredricksen's house goes by in the bottom left corner in the shadow of the bed. IGN named Lotso the best villain of the summer of Ken is a smooth-talking doll who falls in love with Barbie.
He first appears wearing light blue pleated and cuffed shorts, and a tucked-in leopard-print shirt with short sleeves.
His accessories include matching ascot, sensible loafers and a fashion-forward gold belt. He lives in Ken's Dreamhouse, a big yellow doll house with three stories, a large wardrobe room, and an elevator.
Barbie originally breaks up with Ken when she finds him, Lotso, his other henchmen, and a reset Buzz Lightyear locking up her friends and discovering their ulterior motive.
Piqued, Ken orders her locked up as well. However, as part of a plan to escape, she pretends to forgive Ken, gaining access to his dream house.
Barbie then ties Ken hostage to try to get him to reveal how to reset Buzz back to normal. As a provocation, she entangles him in an ironing board and rips his clothing apart.
Ken reveals the truth after she begins to sabotage his prized Nehru jacket. He is not seen again until Lotso has the toys cornered at the dumpster, where he is the first to turn on Lotso.
Ken comes to Barbie's help by trying to stop Lotso, having realized Barbie through her understanding of civics.
Lotso tells Ken "there's ,, just like her", but Ken insists that for him, there is no one else like her, and wins back her affections.
In the end credits of the film, he and Barbie are seen greeting new toys at Sunnyside as Barbie becomes his girlfriend again, and with Lotso gone, they both take charge of the Sunnyside toys as the new leaders.
He resembles a real doll from called Animal Lovin' Ken. Ken, along with Barbie, appears in the theatrical short, Hawaiian Vacation , in which the two embark on a journey to Hawaii, but ends up in Bonnie's room, where Woody and the other toys reenact various Hawaiian scenes.
Big Baby is a Bitty Baby doll with a lazy eye who carries around a bottle and is adorned with childlike scribbling that resembles ferocious tattoos.
He normally does not speak, instead communicating through baby sounds, with the exception of one spoken line after the toys escape Sunnyside.
Big Baby was once one of Daisy's toys before he, Lotso, and Chuckles were lost at a rest area. After returning home, Lotso lied to Big Baby, claiming that Daisy replaced and no longer loved them.
Eventually, Woody reveals to Lotso that Daisy still cared about them and gives Big Baby his pendant, sparking his memory of his former owner, whom he called "Mama".
Lotso derides Big Baby for his attachment to Daisy and smashes the pendant with his mallet. Big Baby turns against Lotso and throws him in the dumpster a parody of a scene from Return of the Jedi , blows him a raspberry , and helps Woody and his friends escape Sunnyside.
In the credits, Big Baby is much happier at Sunnyside under Barbie and Ken's care, and even wears gold diapers to match their outfits at a party at the daycare.
The baby who provided the voice for Big Baby is named "Woody," according to Lee Unkrich 's Twitter account,  and the film's credits confirm it as being Woody Smith listed under Additional voices.
Twitch is a green "insectaloid warrior" action figure with a bug's head, orange eyes with ferocious chomping mandibles, wings, and two muscular arms.
He is one of the toy thugs working for Lotso. He helps to reprogram Buzz, and later apprehends Andy's other toys. He keeps a search light working in the playground.
During the credits, he is seen living in a happier Sunnyside and is shown taking a turn to endure playtime with the young children in the Caterpillar Room, switching with Chunk so he can rest.
Twitch is reminiscent of the s " He-Man and the Masters of the Universe " toy line, and other similar lines. Stretch is a toy rubber octopus with sticky suckers on her eight long arms and a glittery, purple body.
She is the sole female member of Lotso's gang, and at first welcomes the toys, but later helps capture them with her elastic tentacles. With her cohorts, she later catches Woody and his friends, and was eager to push them into the dumpster, should they not admit defeat.
However, Stretch was also seen to be the first toy to doubt Lotso's leadership and motives, as she was seen to visibly cringe at Lotso's true character being revealed.
After Lotso destroys Big Baby's locket, he angrily orders Stretch to push Woody and his friends into the dumpster, which Stretch is now reluctant to do, causing Lotso to reveal his true feelings about all toys.
Eventually, Lotso is thrown into the dumpster by Big Baby for his lies and treachery, and Stretch immediately leaves the area, shocked at what had happened but relieved.
In the credits, she welcomes new toys happily without Lotso and is later seen sneaking a message to Woody and the gang in Bonnie's backpack.
She is based on a purple Wacky WallWalker toy from the s. Chunk is an orange muscular rock monster toy. He has two red eyes when fierce, blue eyes when he's friendly, huge fists, and a face that you can change by rolling it up or down to a different facial expression or pressing a button at the top of his head.
He welcomes the toys to Sunnyside, but later helps Lotso and Buzz imprison them. He is then convinced of Lotso's deception when he abuses Big Baby, and is seen helping Woody and his friends climb to safety.
In the credits, he is seen taking the abuse of the younger children, later taking a rest while Twitch takes his place.
He is based on the short lived Rock Lords toyline. Chunk has a very low level of intelligence: During a gambling scene, he describes Buzz as "He ain't the sharpest knife in the He enjoys teasing Ken during the gambling scene since he called him a "girl's toy.
Sparks is a robot toy at Sunnyside Daycare. He has shown to be both blunt and sarcastic. Sparks' retro design has flashing red LED eyes and a blaster cavity in his chest that spits out real sparks when he's rolling around on his wheels, but is completely safe for children.
He sports telescoping arms with working pincers and he can also elevate his body to make himself taller. He starts out as one of Lotso's henchmen, but in the dumpster scene, when Ken states that Lotso put all of the toys in Sunnyside Daycare into a pyramid and placed himself on the top, he and Twitch and likely Chunk as well start to doubt Lotso's leadership as both of them look at each other.
Both of them are also in shock when Lotso shows his true colors and pokes Big Baby angrily in the stomach.
They also witness Big Baby who retaliates by throwing Lotso into the dumpster, and he and the rest of his fellow henchmen let Andy's toys escape.
In the end, he and the rest of Lotso's former henchmen reform for the better and become nicer. Sparks has only one line, when he points out Chunk's low intelligence, he says, "Neither are you, Chunk" after Chunk gives his opinion on Buzz.
Chatter Telephone is a character based on the real-life toy of the same name. He can only speak when his receiver is lifted from its cradle.
He lives in the Caterpillar Room. He is the oldest toy at Sunnyside, and becomes an ally to Woody. When Woody returns to Sunnyside, he immediately says that coming back was a mistake because Lotso had rigged his security after he left and that the best action would be to just lay low.
He reluctantly gives him instructions on how to escape Sunnyside. For this, he is later brutally beaten and broken for helping Woody and his group escape, and eventually rats Woody out when convinced that Woody and the other toys had already escaped, but are caught just before they can do so.
He sadly apologizes to Woody who shows sympathy for the broken toy. In the credits, he has been repaired and now lives a happier life there at Sunnyside Daycare without Lotso, having been invited into the Butterfly Room.
When Woody talked to him, he called him Ol' Timer. The Bookworm is a green toy worm with a built-in flashlight who wears glasses. He is a genius who loves reading books.
He keeps a library of instruction manuals in a closet at Sunnyside, and gives Lotso the instruction manual for Buzz Lightyear.
He later gives the same manual to Barbie who he thinks is Ken since she is disguised in his spacesuit outfit. It is unknown if he is in allegiance with Lotso but is most likely not, since he is never seen with him very often.
In the credits, he is happy without Lotso, and is seen using his flashlight to light a disco ball during a party at Sunnyside.
He is based on the Glo Worm toys from the s. He only has two lines in the film. The cymbal-banging monkey is a monkey toy based on the Musical Jolly Chimp toy from the s.
Chatter Telephone tells Woody that he must get rid of the monkey before he and his friends can escape. Woody and Slinky manage to succeed in taking him down by wrapping him up in Scotch Tape and shutting him in a filing cabinet.
In the credits, he is seen in a much happier situation, gently playing his clash cymbals while wearing star-shaped sunglasses.
In , the Avila Camacho administration took office in Mexico. The administration's primary goal for Mexican agriculture was augmenting the nation's industrialization and economic growth.
Vice President-Elect Henry Wallace , who was instrumental in persuading the Rockefeller Foundation to work with the Mexican government in agricultural development, saw Avila Camacho's ambitions as beneficial to U.
Stakman and two other leading agronomists. They developed a proposal for a new organization, the Office of Special Studies, as part of the Mexican Government, but directed by the Rockefeller Foundation.
It was to be staffed with both Mexican and US scientists, focusing on soil development, maize and wheat production, and plant pathology.
Jacob George "Dutch" Harrar as project leader. Harrar immediately set out to hire Borlaug as head of the newly established Cooperative Wheat Research and Production Program in Mexico; Borlaug declined, choosing to finish his war service at DuPont.
Funding for this autonomous international research training institute developed from the Cooperative Wheat Research Production Program was undertaken jointly by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations and the Mexican government.
In addition to taking up charitable and educational roles, he continued to be involved in plant research at CIMMYT with wheat, triticale , barley , maize , and high-altitude sorghum.
In , Borlaug became a founding member of the World Cultural Council. The Cooperative Wheat Research Production Program, a joint venture by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Mexican Ministry of Agriculture, involved research in genetics , plant breeding , plant pathology, entomology , agronomy , soil science , and cereal technology.
The goal of the project was to boost wheat production in Mexico, which at the time was importing a large portion of its grain.
Plant pathologist George Harrar recruited and assembled the wheat research team in late Borlaug said that his first few years in Mexico were difficult.
He lacked trained scientists and equipment. Local farmers were hostile towards the wheat program because of serious crop losses from to due to stem rust.
In that time, his group made 6, individual crossings of wheat. Initially, Borlaug's work had been concentrated in the central highlands, in the village of Chapingo near Texcoco , where the problems with rust and poor soil were most prevalent.
He realized that he could speed up breeding by taking advantage of the country's two growing seasons.
The difference in altitudes and temperatures would allow more crops to be grown each year. Borlaug's boss, George Harrar, was against this expansion.
Besides the extra costs of doubling the work, Borlaug's plan went against a then-held principle of agronomy that has since been disproved.
It was believed that to store energy for germination before being planted, seeds needed a rest period after harvesting.
When Harrar vetoed his plan, Borlaug resigned. Elvin Stakman, who was visiting the project, calmed the situation, talking Borlaug into withdrawing his resignation and Harrar into allowing the double wheat season.
This was called "shuttle breeding". As an unexpected benefit of the double wheat season, the new breeds did not have problems with photoperiodism.
Normally, wheat varieties cannot adapt to new environments, due to the changing periods of sunlight.
Borlaug later recalled, "As it worked out, in the north, we were planting when the days were getting shorter, at low elevation and high temperature.
Then we'd take the seed from the best plants south and plant it at high elevation, when days were getting longer and there was lots of rain.
Soon we had varieties that fit the whole range of conditions. That wasn't supposed to happen by the books". Because pure line genotypically identical plant varieties often only have one or a few major genes for disease resistance, and plant diseases such as rust are continuously producing new races that can overcome a pure line's resistance, multiline varieties were developed.
Multiline varieties are mixtures of several phenotypically similar pure lines which each have different genes for disease resistance.
By having similar heights, flowering and maturity dates, seed colors, and agronomic characteristics, they remain compatible with each other, and do not reduce yields when grown together on the field.
In , Borlaug extended this technique by suggesting that several pure lines with different resistance genes should be developed through backcross methods using one recurrent parent.
As a result, the genotype of the backcrossed progeny becomes increasingly similar to that of the recurrent parent. Borlaug's method would allow the various different disease-resistant genes from several donor parents to be transferred into a single recurrent parent.
To make sure each line has different resistant genes, each donor parent is used in a separate backcross program. Between five and ten of these lines may then be mixed depending upon the races of pathogen present in the region.
As this process is repeated, some lines will become susceptible to the pathogen. These lines can easily be replaced with new resistant lines.
As new sources of resistance become available, new lines are developed. In this way, the loss of crops is kept to a minimum, because only one or a few lines become susceptible to a pathogen within a given season, and all other crops are unaffected by the disease.
Because the disease would spread more slowly than if the entire population were susceptible, this also reduces the damage to susceptible lines. There is still the possibility that a new race of pathogen will develop to which all lines are susceptible, however.
Dwarfing is an important agronomic quality for wheat; dwarf plants produce thick stems. The cultivars Borlaug worked with had tall, thin stalks.
Taller wheat grasses better compete for sunlight, but tend to collapse under the weight of the extra grain—a trait called lodging—from the rapid growth spurts induced by nitrogen fertilizer Borlaug used in the poor soil.
To prevent this, he bred wheat to favor shorter, stronger stalks that could better support larger seed heads.
In , he acquired a Japanese dwarf variety of wheat called Norin 10 developed by the agronomist Gonjiro Inazuka in Iwate Prefecture , including ones which had been crossed with a high-yielding American cultivar called Brevor 14 by Orville Vogel.
Also, larger amounts of assimilate were partitioned into the actual grains, further increasing the yield. Borlaug's new semi-dwarf, disease-resistant varieties, called Pitic 62 and Penjamo 62, changed the potential yield of spring wheat dramatically.
That year, the harvest was six times larger than in , the year Borlaug arrived in Mexico. Mexico had become fully self-sufficient in wheat production, and a net exporter of wheat.
In to , Borlaug's dwarf spring wheat strains were sent for multilocation testing in the International Wheat Rust Nursery, organized by the U.
In May , M. Pal, director of IARI, to arrange for the visit of Borlaug to India and to obtain a wide range of dwarf wheat seed possessing the Norin 10 dwarfing genes.
Subramaniam , which arranged with the Rockefeller Foundation for Borlaug's visit. Robert Glenn Anderson to India to continue his work. During the mids, the Indian subcontinent was at war and experienced minor famine and starvation , which was limited partially by the U.
In , as a response to food shortages, Borlaug imported tons of seeds for the government. Ehrlich wrote in his bestseller The Population Bomb , "The battle to feed all of humanity is over In the s and s hundreds of millions of people will starve to death in spite of any crash programs embarked upon now.
They encountered many obstacles. Their first shipment of wheat was held up in Mexican customs and so it could not be shipped from the port at Guaymas in time for proper planting.
Once the convoy entered the U. National Guard had closed the freeway due to Watts riots in Los Angeles. Still, the seed was loaded onto a freighter destined for Bombay , India, and Karachi , Pakistan.
Twelve hours into the freighter's voyage, war broke out between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir region. Bombs are falling on my front lawn.
Be patient, the money is in the bank These delays prevented Borlaug's group from conducting the germination tests needed to determine seed quality and proper seeding levels.
They started planting immediately, and often worked in sight of artillery flashes. A week later, Borlaug discovered that his seeds were germinating at less than half the normal rate.
He immediately ordered all locations to double their seeding rates. The initial yields of Borlaug's crops were higher than any ever harvested in South Asia.
The countries subsequently committed to importing large quantities of both the Lerma Rojo 64 and Sonora 64 varieties. Pakistan's import, planted on 1.
High yields led to a shortage of various utilities—labor to harvest the crops, bullock carts to haul it to the threshing floor, jute bags, trucks, rail cars, and grain storage facilities.
Some local governments were forced to close school buildings temporarily to use them for grain storage. In Pakistan, wheat yields nearly doubled, from 4.
In India, yields increased from By , India was self-sufficient in the production of all cereals. By , India was harvesting a record Since the s, food production in both nations has increased faster than the rate of population growth.
Borlaug's work with wheat contributed to the development of high-yield semi-dwarf indica and japonica rice cultivars at the International Rice Research Institute and China's Hunan Rice Research Institute.
Borlaug's colleagues at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research also developed and introduced a high-yield variety of rice throughout most of Asia.
For his contributions to the world food supply, Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in Norwegian officials notified his wife in Mexico City at 4: A chauffeur took her to the fields to inform her husband.
It took some convincing He thought the whole thing was a hoax". In his Nobel Lecture the following day, he speculated on his award: If fully implemented, the revolution can provide sufficient food for sustenance during the next three decades.
But the frightening power of human reproduction must also be curbed; otherwise the success of the green revolution will be ephemeral only.
Most people still fail to comprehend the magnitude and menace of the "Population Monster" Since man is potentially a rational being, however, I am confident that within the next two decades he will recognize the self-destructive course he steers along the road of irresponsible population growth Borlaug continually advocated increasing crop yields as a means to curb deforestation.
The large role he played in both increasing crop yields and promoting this view has led to this methodology being called by agricultural economists the "Borlaug hypothesis", namely that increasing the productivity of agriculture on the best farmland can help control deforestation by reducing the demand for new farmland.
According to this view, assuming that global food demand is on the rise, restricting crop usage to traditional low-yield methods would also require at least one of the following: It is thus argued that high-yield techniques are ultimately saving ecosystems from destruction.
On a global scale, this view holds strictly true ceteris paribus , if deforestation only occurs to increase land for agriculture.
But other land uses exist, such as urban areas, pasture, or fallow, so further research is necessary to ascertain what land has been converted for what purposes, to determine how true this view remains.
Increased profits from high-yield production may also induce cropland expansion in any case, although as world food needs decrease, this expansion may decrease as well.
Borlaug's name is nearly synonymous with the Green Revolution , against which many criticisms have been mounted over the decades by environmentalists and some nutritionalists.
Throughout his years of research, Borlaug's programs often faced opposition by people who consider genetic crossbreeding to be unnatural or to have negative effects.
Other concerns of his critics and critics of biotechnology in general include: Borlaug dismissed most claims of critics, but did take certain concerns seriously.
He stated that his work has been "a change in the right direction, but it has not transformed the world into a Utopia".
They've never experienced the physical sensation of hunger. They do their lobbying from comfortable office suites in Washington or Brussels.
If they lived just one month amid the misery of the developing world, as I have for fifty years, they'd be crying out for tractors and fertilizer and irrigation canals and be outraged that fashionable elitists back home were trying to deny them these things".
Following his retirement, Borlaug continued to participate in teaching, research and activism. From to , Borlaug served on the International Fertilizer Development Center board of directors.
He worked in the building's Heep Center, and taught one semester each year. In the early s, environmental groups that were opposed to Borlaug's methods campaigned against his planned expansion of efforts into Africa.
They prompted the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations and the World Bank to stop funding most of his African agriculture projects. Western European governments were persuaded to stop supplying fertilizer to Africa.
According to David Seckler, former Director General of the International Water Management Institute , "the environmental community in the s went crazy pressuring the donor countries and the big foundations not to support ideas like inorganic fertilizers for Africa.
In , during the Ethiopian famine, Ryoichi Sasakawa , the chairman of the Japan Shipbuilding Industry Foundation now the Nippon Foundation , contacted the semi-retired Borlaug, wondering why the methods used in Asia were not extended to Africa, and hoping Borlaug could help.
He managed to convince Borlaug to help with this new effort,  and subsequently founded the Sasakawa Africa Association SAA to coordinate the project.
The SAA is a research and extension organization that aims to increase food production in African countries that are struggling with food shortages.
Yields of maize in developed African countries tripled. Yields of wheat, sorghum , cassava , and cowpeas also increased in these countries.
Because of this, Borlaug's initial projects were restricted to developed regions of the continent. Despite these setbacks, Borlaug found encouragement.
Visiting Ethiopia in , Jimmy Carter won Prime Minister Meles Zenawi 's support for a campaign seeking to aid farmers, using the fertilizer diammonium phosphate and Borlaug's methods.
For Borlaug, the rapid increase in yields suggested that there was still hope for higher food production throughout sub-Saharan Africa,  despite lingering questions and the absence of long-term studies.
The World Food Prize is an international award recognizing the achievements of individuals who have advanced human development by improving the quality, quantity or availability of food in the world.
The prize was created in by Norman Borlaug, as a way to recognize personal accomplishments, and as a means of education by using the Prize to establish role models for others.
The first prize was given to Borlaug's former colleague, M. Swaminathan , in , for his work in India. The University was unable to expand the necessary content or customer base, and since late has been defunct.
The limited potential for land expansion for cultivation worried Borlaug, who, in March , stated that, "we will have to double the world food supply by His dream was to "transfer rice immunity to cereals such as wheat, maize, sorghum and barley, and transfer bread-wheat proteins gliadin and glutenin to other cereals, especially rice and maize".
Borlaug believed that genetically modified organisms GMO was the only way to increase food production as the world runs out of unused arable land.
GMOs were not inherently dangerous "because we've been genetically modifying plants and animals for a long time.
Long before we called it science, people were selecting the best breeds. GM crops are as natural and safe as today's bread wheat, opined Dr.
Borlaug, who also reminded agricultural scientists of their moral obligation to stand up to the antiscience crowd and warn policy makers that global food insecurity will not disappear without this new technology and ignoring this reality global food insecurity would make future solutions all the more difficult to achieve.
According to Borlaug, "Africa, the former Soviet republics, and the cerrado are the last frontiers. After they are in use, the world will have no additional sizable blocks of arable land left to put into production, unless you are willing to level whole forests, which you should not do.
So, future food-production increases will have to come from higher yields. And though I have no doubt yields will keep going up, whether they can go up enough to feed the population monster is another matter.
Unless progress with agricultural yields remains very strong, the next century will experience sheer human misery that, on a numerical scale, will exceed the worst of everything that has come before".
Besides increasing the worldwide food supply, early in his career Borlaug stated that taking steps to decrease the rate of population growth will also be necessary to prevent food shortages.
In his Nobel Lecture of , Borlaug stated, "Most people still fail to comprehend the magnitude and menace of the 'Population Monster' If it continues to increase at the estimated present rate of two percent a year, the world population will reach 6.
Currently, with each second, or tick of the clock, about 2. The rhythm of increase will accelerate to 2.
The tick-tock of the clock will continually grow louder and more menacing each decade. Where will it all end?
They point to a quote from the year in which he stated: The more pertinent question today is whether farmers and ranchers will be permitted to use this new technology?
While the affluent nations can certainly afford to adopt ultra low-risk positions, and pay more for food produced by the so-called 'organic' methods, the one billion chronically undernourished people of the low income, food-deficit nations cannot.
Borlaug died of lymphoma at the age of 95, on September 12, , in his Dallas home. Borlaug's children released a statement saying, "We would like his life to be a model for making a difference in the lives of others and to bring about efforts to end human misery for all mankind.
The Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh and President of India Pratibha Patil paid tribute to Borlaug saying, "Borlaug's life and achievement are testimony to the far-reaching contribution that one man's towering intellect, persistence and scientific vision can make to human peace and progress.
Borlaug's long and remarkable life, we also celebrate the long and productive lives that his achievements have made possible for so many millions of people around the world Also in that year, he became a member of the U.
National Academy of Sciences. In , he was given an honorary doctorate by the Agricultural University of Norway. In , he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize by the Norwegian Nobel Committee "for his contributions to the 'green revolution' that was having such an impact on food production particularly in Asia and in Latin America.
In , he was awarded a Peace Medal in the form of a dove, carrying a wheat ear in its beak by Haryana Agricultural University , Hisar, India.
In , he received the S. In , he was elected honorary member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Also that year, he was recognized for sustained service to humanity through outstanding contributions in plant breeding from the Governors Conference on Agriculture Innovations in Little Rock , Arkansas.
Also in , he received the Henry G. He recently received the Charles A. Black Award for his contributions to public policy and the public understanding of science.
In , the University of Minnesota named a wing of the new science building in Borlaug's honor, calling it "Borlaug Hall.
On 25 March , a statue of Borlaug at the United States Capitol was unveiled in a ceremony on the th anniversary of his birth. This statue replaces the statue of James Harlan as one of the two statues given to the National Statuary Hall Collection by the state of Iowa.
In addition to the Nobel Prize, Borlaug received the U. As of January , Borlaug had received 49 honorary degrees from as many universities, in 18 countries, the most recent from Dartmouth College on June 12, ,  and was a foreign or honorary member of 22 international Academies of Sciences.
In , the Government of India conferred on him its second highest civilian award: Several research institutions and buildings have been named in his honor, including: The stained-glass World Peace Window at St.
Mark's Episcopal Cathedral in Minneapolis , Minnesota , depicts "peace makers" of the 20th century, including Norman Borlaug. The president of a fictional African country describes the kind of " miracle " needed to save his country from the ravages of AIDS by referencing an American scientist who was able to save the world from hunger through the development of a new type of wheat.
Each player picks a few cards at random, and bets on whether one thinks one's card shows a greater person than the other players' cards based on a characterization such as humanitarianism or scientific achievement.
Penn gets Norman Borlaug, and proceeds to bet all his chips, his house, his rings, his watch, and essentially everything he's ever owned.
He wins because, as he says, "Norman is the greatest human being, and you've probably never heard of him.
In August , Dr. Borlaug Act of The act authorizes that Borlaug be awarded America's highest civilian award, the Congressional Gold Medal.
On December 6, , the House of Representatives passed the measure by voice vote. Borlaug has saved [is] more than a billion people" The act authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to strike and sell duplicates of the medal in bronze.
Borlaug was a foreign fellow of the Bangladesh Academy of Sciences. The Borlaug Dialogue Norman E. Borlaug International Symposium is named in his honour.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Green Revolution World Food Prize. Agronomy Plant pathology Genetics. Green Revolution and Green Revolution in India.
Borlaug — Plant scientist who transformed global food production". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. Archived from the original on 17 September Retrieved 17 September Retrieved 27 May The Wall Street Journal.